Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2015
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]
Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission for Form 10-Q. Accordingly, certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. The balance sheet at December 31, 2014 has been derived from the Company’s audited financial statements. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. These changes had no impact on total revenue, loss from operations or net loss.
In the opinion of management, these financial statements reflect all normal recurring and other adjustments necessary for a fair presentation. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014. Operating results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of operating results for an entire fiscal year or any other future periods.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Accounts Receivable
Trade accounts receivable are stated net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition. In limited instances, the Company may require an upfront deposit and, in most cases, the Company does charge interest on past due amounts. Management estimates the allowance for doubtful accounts based on review and analysis of specific customer balances that may not be collectible and how recently payments have been received. Accounts are considered for write-off when they become past due and when it is determined that the probability of collection is remote.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (first in, first out method) or market value. Inventory quantities on hand are reviewed regularly and a write-down for excess and obsolete inventory is recorded based primarily on a forecast of product demand, market conditions and planned design changes.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Major additions and improvements are capitalized while maintenance and repairs that do not improve or extend the useful life of the respective asset are expensed. Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the life of the asset or the related leases. Estimated useful lives of the principal classes of assets are as follows:
Leasehold improvements
Up to 4 years
Machinery and equipment
5 years
Furniture, fixtures, software and computers
3-5 years
Patents are recorded at cost. The Company capitalizes third party legal costs and filing fees associated with obtaining patents on its new discoveries. Once the patents have been issued, the Company amortizes these costs over the shorter of the legal life of the patent or its estimated economic life, generally 20 years, using the straight-line method.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The long-lived assets held and used by the Company are reviewed for impairment no less frequently than annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. In the event that facts and circumstances indicate that the cost of any long-lived assets may be impaired, an evaluation of recoverability is performed.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are categorized based on whether or not the inputs are observable in the market and the degree that the inputs are observable. The categorization of financial assets and liabilities within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
The Company’s financial instruments primarily consist of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable. As of the balance sheet dates, the estimated fair values of the financial instruments were not materially different from their carrying values as presented on the balance sheets. This is primarily attributed to the short maturities of these instruments. The Company did not identify any other non-recurring assets and liabilities that are required to be presented in the balance sheets at fair value.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue from product sales is recognized when the risks of loss and title pass to the customer, as specified in (1) the respective sales agreements and (2) other revenue recognition criteria as prescribed by Staff Accounting Bulletin (“SAB”) No. 101 (SAB 101), “Revenue Recognition in Financial Statements,” as amended by SAB No. 104, “Revenue Recognition”. The Company generally sells its products FOB shipping and recognizes revenue when products are shipped.
Historically, the Company received payments from government entities in the form of government grants. Government grants are agreements that generally provide the Company with cost reimbursement for certain types of research and development activities over a contractually defined period. Revenues from government grants are recognized in the period during which the Company incurs the related costs, provided that the Company has incurred the cost in accordance with the specifications and work plans determined between the Company and the government entity. Costs incurred related to the grants are recorded as grant research and development costs. At December 31, 2014, the Company had recognized all grant revenues related to the ARPA-E grant and no grant revenue was recognized in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015. Grant receivables were $132,227 at December 31, 2014 and were included in accounts receivable. At September 30, 2015, all outstanding grant receivables had been collected.
Product Warranties
The Company generally provides a ten year manufacturer’s warranty covering product defects. Accruals for product warranties are estimated based upon limited historical warranty experience, engineering experience and judgment, and an assessment of the reliability of the Company’s products. Accruals for product warranties are recorded in cost of revenues at the time revenue is recognized in order to match revenues with related expenses. The Company assesses the adequacy of its estimated warranty liability quarterly and adjusts the reserve, included in accrued expenses, as necessary.
Research and Development
Grant research and development are costs incurred solely related to grant revenues, and are classified as a line item under cost of revenues. Other research and development costs are presented as a line item under operating expenses and are expensed as incurred. Total research and development costs incurred during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 amounted to $1,716,782 and $3,809,362. Total research and development costs incurred during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 amounted to $854,984 and $2,142,127, inclusive of $165,588 and $497,833 related to grant research which was included in cost of revenues.
Income Taxes
The Company accounts for income taxes using an asset and liability approach which allows for the recognition and measurement of deferred tax assets based upon the likelihood of realization of tax benefits in future years. Under the asset and liability approach, deferred taxes are provided for the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes. A valuation allowance is provided for deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not these items will either expire before the Company is able to realize their benefits, or that future deductibility is uncertain. At September 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the Company has established a full reserve against all deferred tax assets.
Tax benefits from an uncertain tax position are recognized only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate resolution.
Net Loss Per Share
The Company applies Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 260, “Earnings per Share.” Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing earnings (loss) available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted earnings (loss) per share is computed similar to basic earnings (loss) per share except that the denominator is increased to include additional common shares available upon exercise of stock options and warrants using the treasury stock method. In periods with a net loss, no common share equivalents are included because their effect would be anti-dilutive. At September 30, 2015 and 2014, potentially dilutive shares outstanding amounted to 3,061,810 and 2,940,635, respectively.
Stock Based Compensation
The Company applies FASB ASC 718, “Stock Compensation,” when recording stock based compensation. The fair value of each stock option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option valuation model. The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes valuation model are as follows:
Grant Price - The grant price of the issuances are determined based on the closing share price on the date of grant.
Risk-free interest rate - The risk free interest rate is based on the implied yield available on US Treasury securities at the time of grant with an equivalent term of the expected life of the award.
Expected lives - As permitted by SAB 107, due to the Company's insufficient history of option activity, the Company utilizes the simplified approach to estimate the options’ expected term, calculated as the midpoint between the vesting period and the contractual life of the award.
Expected volatility – Volatility is determined based on management's estimate or historical volatilities of comparable companies.
Expected dividend yield – Dividend yield is based on current yield at the grant date or the average dividend yield over the historical period. The Company has never declared or paid dividends and has no plans to do so in the foreseeable future.
The Company accounts for stock issued to non-employees in accordance with the provisions of FASB ASC 505-50 “Equity Based Payments to Non-Employees.” FASB ASC 505-50 states that equity instruments that are issued in exchange for the receipt of goods or services should be measured at the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. The measurement date occurs as of the earlier of (a) the date at which a performance commitment is reached or (b) absent a performance commitment, the date at which the performance necessary to earn the equity instruments is complete (that is, the vesting date).
Presentation of Sales Taxes
Certain states impose a sales tax on the Company’s sales to nonexempt customers. The Company collects that sales tax from customers and remits the entire amount to the states. The Company’s accounting policy is to exclude the tax collected and remitted to the states from revenues and cost of revenues.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash, accounts receivable and accounts payable. The Company maintains its cash with a major financial institution located in the United States. Balances are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250,000. The Company maintains balances in excess of federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to significant credit risk regarding its cash and cash equivalents.
The Company encounters a certain amount of risk as a result of a concentration of revenue from a few significant customers. Credit is extended to customers based on an evaluation of their financial condition. In limited instances, the Company may require an upfront deposit and, in most cases, the Company does charge interest on past due amounts. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and records an allowance for potential bad debts based on available information. 
The Company had revenue from two customers which accounted for 55% and 12% of net revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2015 and revenue from four customers which accounted for 29%, 22%, 15% and 13% of net revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2015. The Company had receivable balances from two customers that accounted for 83% of trade receivables at September 30, 2015.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11, Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory (Topic 330), which requires inventory not measured using either the last in, first out (LIFO) or the retail inventory method to be measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable cost of completion, disposal, and transportation. The new standard will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and will be applied prospectively. Early adoption is permitted. The adoption of the updated standard is not expected to have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which requires an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. The updated standard will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in US GAAP when it becomes effective and permits the use of either the retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. Early adoption is not permitted. The updated standard becomes effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The adoption of the updated standard is not expected to have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements.
Management does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective, accounting standards, if adopted, will have a material effect on the financial statements.