Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2 Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Trade accounts receivable are stated net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition. In limited instances, the Company may require an upfront deposit and, in most cases, the Company charges interest on past due amounts. Management estimates the allowance for doubtful accounts based on review and analysis of specific customer balances that may not be collectible, customer payment history and any other customer-specific information that may impact the evaluation of the specific customer’s credit. Accounts are considered for write-off when they become past due and it is determined that the probability of collection is remote. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $178,399 and $85,375 at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (first in, first out method) or market value. Inventory quantities on hand are reviewed regularly and a write-down for excess and obsolete inventory is recorded based primarily on an estimated forecast of product demand, market conditions and anticipated production requirements in the near future. There was a $120,443 and $59,969 reserve for excess and obsolete inventory at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, related to component parts not anticipated to have a future use.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Major additions and improvements are capitalized while maintenance and repairs that do not improve or extend the useful life of the respective asset are expensed. Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment is computed using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the life of the asset or the related leases. Estimated useful lives of the principal classes of assets are as follows:
The Company’s intangible assets are primarily composed of patents, which are recorded at cost. The Company capitalizes third party legal costs and filing fees, if any, associated with obtaining patents or other intangible assets. Once the intangible asset has been placed in service, the Company amortizes these costs over the shorter of the asset’s legal life, generally 20 years, or its estimated economic life using the straight-line method.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The long-lived assets, consisting of property and equipment and intangible assets, held and used by the Company are reviewed for impairment no less frequently than annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. In the event that facts and circumstances indicate that the cost of any long-lived assets may be impaired, an evaluation of recoverability is performed. Management has determined that there was an impairment in the value of long-lived assets in the amount of $334,243 and $164,529 during the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are categorized based on whether or not the inputs are observable in the market and the degree that the inputs are observable. The categorization of financial assets and liabilities within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The three levels of inputs used to establish fair value are the following:
The Company’s financial instruments primarily consist of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and long-term liabilities. As of the balance sheet dates, the estimated fair values of the financial instruments were not materially different from their carrying values as presented on the balance sheets. This is primarily attributed to the short-term nature of these instruments.
In 2016, the Company recorded a long-term liability for the estimated present value of future payments under a licensing agreement. In 2017, the Company recorded an adjustment to increase the long-term liability due to an increase in the future payments due under this licensing agreement. The Company determined the discount rate to estimate the present value of the future payments based on the applicable treasury rates. The Company's long-term liability is classified within Level 3. See Footnote 7 and Footnote 13 for more details regarding the licensing agreement. The Company did not identify any other assets and liabilities that are required to be presented in the balance sheets at fair value.
Revenue from product sales is recognized when the risks of loss and title pass to the customer, as specified in (1) the respective sales agreements and (2) other revenue recognition criteria as prescribed by Staff Accounting Bulletin (“SAB”) No. 101 (SAB 101), “Revenue Recognition in Financial Statements,” as amended by SAB No. 104, “Revenue Recognition”. The Company generally sells its products FOB shipping and recognizes revenue when products are shipped.
The Company generally provides a ten-year limited warranty on its products except for its product for the solar + storage market for which the Company provides a five-year limited warranty. Accruals for product warranties are estimated based upon limited historical warranty experience, engineering experience and judgment, and third-party assessments of the reliability of the Company’s products. Accruals for product warranties are recorded in cost of product revenue at the time revenue is recognized in order to match revenues with related expenses. The Company assesses the adequacy of its estimated warranty liability quarterly and adjusts the reserve, included in accrued expenses, as necessary. The Company recorded warranty accrual adjustments of $283,457 and $116,448 for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Warranty adjustments could be material in the future if estimates differ significantly from actual warranty experience.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are presented as a line item under operating expenses and are expensed as incurred.
The Company accounts for income taxes using an asset and liability approach which allows for the recognition and measurement of deferred tax assets based upon the likelihood of realization of tax benefits in future years. Under the asset and liability approach, deferred taxes are provided for the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes. A valuation allowance is provided for deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not these items will either expire before the Company is able to realize their benefits, or that future deductibility is uncertain. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, the Company has established a full reserve against all deferred tax assets.
Tax benefits from an uncertain tax position are recognized only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate resolution.
Net Loss Per Share
The Company applies Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 260, “Earnings per Share.” Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing earnings (loss) available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted earnings (loss) per share is computed similar to basic earnings (loss) per share except that the denominator is increased to include additional common shares available upon exercise of equity awards and warrants using the treasury stock method. In periods with a net loss, no common share equivalents are included because their effect would be anti-dilutive. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, potentially dilutive shares outstanding amounted to 8,837,315 and 3,006,357, respectively.
Stock Based Compensation
The Company applies FASB ASC 718, “Stock Compensation,” when recording stock based compensation. The fair value of each stock option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option valuation model.
The Company uses a Monte Carlo simulation pricing model to determine the fair value of performance stock units (“PSUs”). A typical Monte Carlo exercise simulates a distribution of stock prices to yield an expected distribution of stock prices during and at the end of the performance period. The simulations are repeated many times in order to derive a probabilistic assessment of stock performance. The stock-paths are simulated using assumptions which include expected stock price volatility and risk-free interest rate.
The Company accounts for stock issued to non-employees in accordance with the provisions of FASB ASC 505-50 “Equity Based Payments to Non-Employees.” FASB ASC 505-50 states that equity instruments that are issued in exchange for the receipt of goods or services should be measured at the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. The measurement date occurs as of the earlier of (a) the date at which a performance commitment is reached or (b) absent a performance commitment, the date at which the performance necessary to earn the equity instruments is complete (that is, the vesting date).
The Company issues common stock upon exercise of equity awards and warrants.
Presentation of Sales Taxes
Certain states impose a sales tax on the Company’s sales to nonexempt customers. The Company collects that sales tax from customers and remits the entire amount to the states. The Company’s accounting policy is to exclude the tax collected and remitted to the states from revenues and cost of revenues.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. The Company maintains its cash with a major financial institution located in the United States. Balances are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250,000. The Company maintains balances in excess of federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to significant credit risk regarding its cash and cash equivalents.
The Company encounters a certain amount of risk as a result of a concentration of revenue from a few significant customers. Credit is extended to customers based on an evaluation of their financial condition. In limited instances, the Company may require an upfront deposit. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and records an allowance for potential bad debts based on available information.
The Company had revenue from one customer that accounted for 15% of product revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017, and revenue from two customers that accounted for 44% of product revenue for the year ended December 31, 2016. The Company had an accounts receivable balance from three customers that accounted for 60% and two customers that accounted for 78% of trade receivables at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Recently Adopted Standard
In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11, Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features and Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception. Part I of this ASU addresses the complexity of accounting for certain financial instruments with down round features. Per the ASU, a freestanding equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded conversion option) no longer would be accounted for as a derivative liability at fair value as a result of the existence of a down round feature. The ASU is effective for public entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 and early adoption is permitted. The Company has elected to early adopt the ASU and will recognize the value of the effect of the down round provision, if and/or when triggered. The provision is associated with stock warrants issued as part of the Company's 2017 definitive securities purchase agreement, or the Private Placement. For more details regarding the 2017 Private Placement, see Notes 9 and 11.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), requiring an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. The FASB issued several amendments to the standard, including clarification on accounting for licenses of intellectual property and identifying performance obligations. The standard replaced most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP when it became effective on January 1,2018 and permits the use of either the retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. The Company believes the standard will not have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements, nor require an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings at January 1, 2018, the date of initial adoption.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by requiring the recognition of lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet. Most prominent among the amendments is the recognition of assets and liabilities by lessees for those leases classified as operating leases under previous U.S. GAAP. Under the new standard, disclosures are required to meet the objective of enabling users of financial statements to assess the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The new standard will be effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. While the Company is continuing to assess the potential impact of this standard, it expects its lease commitment will be subject to the updated standard and recognized as a lease liability and right-of-use asset upon adoption.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230), in order to address eight specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice. The updated standard is effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those fiscal years with early adoption permitted. The adoption of the standard will not have a significant effect on the Company’s financial statements.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting. This ASU provides clarity and reduces both (1) diversity in practice and (2) cost and complexity when applying the guidance in Topic 718 to a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. The amendments in this ASU are effective for public entities for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The ASU should be applied prospectively on and after the effective date. The standard is not expected to have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements.
Management does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective, accounting standards, if adopted, would have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef