Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Liquidity and Going Concern
The Company has incurred net losses and negative operating cash flows since inception, including a net loss of $7.9 million and cash used in operating activities of $6.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. At December 31, 2018, the Company had net working capital of $3.5 million and the Company’s principal source of liquidity consisted of $3.3 million of cash and cash equivalents.
In order to meet the Company’s operating requirements through at least the next twelve months from the date of issuance of these financial statements, it will need to raise additional capital from third parties. There can be no assurance that the Company will be successful in obtaining third-party financing. If external financing sources are not available or are inadequate to fund operations, or the technology under development is not capable of generating sustainable revenues in the future, the Company will be required to reduce operating costs, which could jeopardize future strategic initiatives and business plans. Accordingly, these factors, among others raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the settlement of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. The ability of the Company to continue as a going concern is dependent on its ability to raise additional capital and to develop profitable operations through implementation of its current business initiatives, however, there can be no assurances that the Company will be able to do so. The accompanying financial statements do not include any adjustments that might be necessary if the Company is unable to continue as a going concern.
Accounts Receivable
Trade accounts receivable are stated net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition. In limited instances, the Company may require an upfront deposit and, in most cases, the Company charges interest on past due amounts. Management estimates the allowance for doubtful accounts based on review and analysis of specific customer balances that may not be collectible, customer payment history and any other customer-specific information that may impact the evaluation of the specific customer’s credit. All trade accounts receivable are included within current assets held for sale at both December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (first in, first out method) or net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price less the selling costs. Inventory quantities on hand are reviewed regularly and a write-down for excess and obsolete inventory is recorded based primarily on an estimated forecast of product demand, market conditions and anticipated production requirements in the near future. All inventories, net of reserves, are included within current assets held for sale at both December 31, 2018 and 2017. 
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Major additions and improvements are capitalized while maintenance and repairs that do not improve or extend the useful life of the respective asset are expensed. Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment is computed using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the life of the asset or the related leases. Estimated useful lives of the principal classes of assets are as follows:
Leasehold improvements
Shorter of lease term or useful life
Machinery and equipment
5 years
Furniture, fixtures and computers
3 – 5 years
Intangible Assets
The Company’s intangible assets are composed of patents, which are recorded at cost, and other intangible assets, which are recorded at cost plus the estimated present value of all future payments associated with the other intangible assets. The Company capitalizes third-party legal costs and filing fees, if any, associated with obtaining patents or other intangible assets. Once the patent asset has been placed in service, the Company amortizes these costs over the shorter of the asset’s legal life, generally 20 years, or its estimated economic life using the straight-line method. For the other intangible assets, the Company amortizes the asset over the 17-year term of the underlying agreements.
Assets and Liabilities of Discontinued Operations Held for Sale
Assets and liabilities are classified as held for sale when all of the following criteria for a plan of sale have been met: (1) management, having the authority to approve the action, commits to a plan to sell the assets; (2) the assets are available for immediate sale, in their present condition, subject only to terms that are usual and customary for sales of such assets; (3) an active program to locate a buyer and other actions required to complete the plan to sell the assets have been initiated; (4) the sale of the assets is probable and is expected to be completed within one year; (5) the assets are being actively marketed for a price that is reasonable in relation to their current fair value; and (6) actions required to complete the plan indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made or the plan will be withdrawn. When all of these criteria have been met, the assets (and liabilities) are classified as held for sale in the balance sheet. Assets classified as held for sale are reported at the lower of their carrying value or fair value less costs to sell. Depreciation of assets ceases upon designation as held for sale.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The long-lived assets, consisting of property and equipment and intangible assets, held and used by the Company are reviewed for impairment no less frequently than annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. In the event that facts and circumstances indicate that the cost of any long-lived assets may be impaired, an evaluation of recoverability is performed. For continuing operations, management has determined that there was an impairment in the value of long-lived assets in the amount of $56,504 and $92,156 during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Fair Value
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are categorized based on whether or not the inputs are observable in the market and the degree that the inputs are observable. The categorization of financial assets and liabilities within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The three levels of inputs used to establish fair value are the following:
Level 1 — Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;
Level 2 — Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities; and
Level 3 — Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities
The Company’s financial instruments primarily consist of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable and long-term liabilities. As of the balance sheet dates, the estimated fair values of the financial instruments were not materially different from their carrying values as presented on the balance sheets. This is primarily attributed to the short-term nature of these instruments.
In 2016, the Company recorded a long-term liability for the estimated present value of future payments under a licensing agreement. In 2017, the Company recorded an adjustment to increase the long-term liability due to an increase in the future payments due under this licensing agreement. The Company determined the discount rate to estimate the present value of the future payments based on the applicable treasury rates. The Company's long-term liability is classified within Level 3. See Note 6 and Note 12 for more details regarding the licensing agreement. The Company did not identify any other assets and liabilities that are required to be presented in the balance sheets at fair value.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue from product sales is recognized in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers.” Revenue is recognized in an amount that reflects the expected consideration to be received in exchange for the transfer of the promised goods or services to customers. The Company generally sells its products FOB shipping, where the risk of loss and title pass to the customer at the shipping point, and recognizes revenue when products are shipped. All revenue is included within loss from discontinued operations for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Product Warranties
The Company generally provides a ten-year limited warranty on its products except for its product for the solar + storage market for which the Company provides a five-year limited warranty. Accruals for product warranties are estimated based upon limited historical warranty experience, engineering experience and judgment, and third-party assessments of the reliability of the Company’s products. Accruals for product warranties were previously recorded in cost of product revenue at the time revenue was recognized in order to match revenues with related expenses but are now included in loss from discontinued operations for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. The Company assesses the adequacy of its estimated warranty liability quarterly and adjusts the reserve as necessary. The warranty reserve was previously included within accrued expenses but is now included within current liabilities held for sale at both December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are presented as a line item under operating expenses and are expensed as incurred.
Income Taxes
The Company accounts for income taxes using an asset and liability approach which allows for the recognition and measurement of deferred tax assets based upon the likelihood of realization of tax benefits in future years. Under the asset and liability approach, deferred taxes are provided for the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes. A valuation allowance is provided for deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not these items will either expire before the Company is able to realize their benefits, or that future deductibility is uncertain. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company has established a full reserve against all deferred tax assets.
Tax benefits from an uncertain tax position are recognized only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate resolution.
Net Loss Per Share
The Company applies Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 260, “Earnings per Share.” Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing earnings (loss) available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted earnings (loss) per share is computed similar to basic earnings (loss) per share except that the denominator is increased to include additional common shares available upon exercise of equity awards and warrants using the treasury stock method. In periods with a net loss, no common share equivalents are included because their effect would be anti-dilutive. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, potentially dilutive shares outstanding amounted to 8,794,900 and 8,837,315, respectively.
Stock Based Compensation
The Company applies FASB ASC 718, “Stock Compensation,” when recording stock-based compensation. The fair value of each stock option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option valuation model.
The Company uses a Monte Carlo simulation pricing model to determine the fair value of performance stock units (“PSUs”). A typical Monte Carlo exercise simulates a distribution of stock prices to yield an expected distribution of stock prices during and at the end of the performance period. The simulations are repeated many times in order to derive a probabilistic assessment of stock performance. The stock-paths are simulated using assumptions which include expected stock price volatility and risk-free interest rate.
The Company accounts for stock issued to non-employees in accordance with the provisions of FASB ASC 505-50 “Equity Based Payments to Non-Employees.” FASB ASC 505-50 states that equity instruments that are issued in exchange for the receipt of goods or services should be measured at the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. The measurement date occurs as of the earlier of (a) the date at which a performance commitment is reached or (b) absent a performance commitment, the date at which the performance necessary to earn the equity instruments is complete (that is, the vesting date).
The Company issues common stock upon exercise of equity awards and warrants.
Presentation of Sales Taxes
Certain states impose a sales tax on the Company’s sales to nonexempt customers. The Company collects that sales tax from customers and remits the entire amount to the states. The Company’s accounting policy is to exclude the tax collected and remitted to the states from revenues and cost of revenues.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. The Company maintains its cash with a major financial institution located in the United States. Balances are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250,000. The Company maintains balances in excess of federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to significant credit risk regarding its cash and cash equivalents.
The Company encounters a certain amount of risk as a result of a concentration of revenue from a few significant customers. Credit is extended to customers based on an evaluation of their financial condition. In limited instances, the Company may require an upfront deposit. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and records an allowance for potential bad debts based on available information. 
Recently Adopted Standard
In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11, Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features and Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception. Part I of this ASU addresses the complexity of accounting for certain financial instruments with down round features. Per the ASU, a freestanding equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded conversion option) no longer would be accounted for as a derivative liability at fair value as a result of the existence of a down round feature. The ASU is effective for public entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 and early adoption is permitted. The Company has elected to early adopt the ASU and will recognize the value of the effect of the down round provision, if and/or when triggered. The provision is associated with stock warrants issued as part of the Company's 2017 definitive securities purchase agreement, or the Private Placement. For more details regarding the 2017 Private Placement, see Notes 8 and 10. 
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), requiring an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. The FASB issued several amendments to the standard, including clarification on accounting for licenses of intellectual property and identifying performance obligations. The standard replaced most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP when it became effective on January 1, 2018 and permits the use of either the retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. Adoption of the standard did not result in an adjustment to the opening balance of accumulated deficit at January 1, 2018, the date of initial adoption, and did not have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230), in order to address eight specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice. The updated standard is effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those fiscal years with early adoption permitted. The adoption of the standard did not have a significant effect on the Company’s financial statements.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting. This ASU provides clarity and reduces both (1) diversity in practice and (2) cost and complexity when applying the guidance in Topic 718 to a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. The amendments in this ASU are effective for public entities for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this standard did not have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by requiring the recognition of lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet. Most prominent among the amendments is the recognition of assets and liabilities by lessees for those leases classified as operating leases under previous U.S. GAAP. Under the new standard, disclosures are required to meet the objective of enabling users of financial statements to assess the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The new standard will be effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The Company elected to not early adopt this standard. The Company will recognize its lease commitment as a lease liability and right-of-use asset upon adoption. For more details regarding the lease commitment, see Note 12.  
Management does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective, accounting standards, if adopted, would have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.